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ERUDITE research projects

International Symposium on Informal Economy and Gender Inequality (Colloque international économie informelle et inégalités de genre)

Philippe Adair

53 paper proposals were collected, 24  proposals were pre-selected, 14  full papers were finally selected for presentation by two reporters, 10 publications are envisaged in 2 ranked journals at the end of the symposium: Travail & Emploi (call for papers), European Journal of Development Research.

Supported by the Association Tiers-Monde webinar and the University of Bejaia, Algeria, which is hosting the symposium on its digital platform.

Project dates (if possible): 14th June 2021

Collaborators (from other institutions): 20 total, including Algeria (15), France (2), Tunisia (1), Turkey (1), Ukraine (1)
Jacques Charmes, Director Emeritus: IRD, France, Mourad Kertous: U. Brest, France, Okksana Nezhyvenko: NaUKMA Kyiv, Ukraine, Aysit Tansel: MTU Ankara, Turkey, Imène Berguiga: U. Sousse, Tunisia, Hassiba Gherbi, Anissa atmani & Nacer-Eddine Mouffok, Youghourta Bellache: U. Bejaia, Algeria (4 participants), LED laboratory, Omar Babou, Jugurta Akkoul & Chabane Bia, Ferroudja Cherfioui & Nora Djouaher: U. Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria (5 participants), Moundir Lassassi, Razika Medjoub, Abdelkrim Zoheir Hadefi & Mohamed Saïb Musette: CREAD research centre, Algiers, Algeria (4 participants), Soumia Bouanani & Chaib Bounoua: U. Tlemcen, Algeria (2 participants).

The informal economy encapsulates informal employment of the workers in the informal sector, the formal sector and households, who do not benefit from social protection (ILO, 2013, Charmes, 2019). It plays a significant role with respect to job and wealth creation in the MENA countries, wherein it accounts for over half the total of non-agricultural employment (ILO, 2018), but this role is controversial in terms of development. The informal economy exerts a negative influence, regarding low level of productivity and high precariousness of the jobs created, as well as a substantial tax shortfall and a duality in the business environment that endangers the regulatory framework. The informal economy, however, generates jobs and incomes, acting as a safety valve for the least protected segments of the population.

The labour market segmentation dividing formal and informal employment goes hand in hand with an income gap (wage gap) between the men of employed women. Women in North Africa make up on average less than a quarter of the urban labour force, which is one of the lowest rates in the world (World Bank, 2018). Despite a much lower participation rate in labour force, women participate in informal activities at least as much as men (ILO, 2012). In Algeria, the rate of informal female employment (24%) in the private sector is higher than that of men; in Egypt, as in Tunisia, over a quarter of employed women work in the informal sector.

Statistics most often underscore the contribution of women to the informal economy, including within the household, in terms of employment and output as well as income. Since these activities are partly home-based, they are not easily measureable, nor are they investigated or valued as such.

This conference intends to provide a state of the art of the informal economy in Algeria, North Africa and other countries of the MENA region. It will tackle various topics and use different investigation methods. It is part of a gender approach, which aims at identifying the place of women on the labour market in these countries, whereby access to employment allowing them to conquer rights and gain social inclusiveness.

Comparative analysis is strongly encouraged. The communication of this conference will be able to mobilize earnings functions, quantile regressions upon the income distribution and Oaxaca-Blinder models of decomposition, as well as (quasi) experiments of the "before-after" type, with (propensity score) matching and counterfactual, according to gender divide and the formal/informal employment segmentation.

The conference will discuss orientations towards the formalisation of the informal sector and informal employment (taxation, regulation and social protection), as well as gender inequalities on the labour market, with respect to a transition to the formal economy.

Research topics
Contributions will include but are not limited to the following topics:

1. The various approaches (dualist, structuralist, institutional, etc.) as regards the scope, trends and participants of the informal economy: controversies and converging views.
2. Relevance and completeness of measures (direct vs. indirect methods) of the informal economy: Surveys (households vs. enterprises), national accounts and computable general equilibrium, econometric modeling.
3. The determinants of access to the informal sector and informal employment: voluntary choice vs. last resort? What may explain differentiation between men and women: human capital and preferences on the labour supply side and/or profiles requirements on the labour demand side?
4. Female informal wage employment and male / female income differentials: are they industry driven?
5. Informal entrepreneurship and gender: to what extent do aspirations vs. constraints differ?
6. The transition from the informal to the formal economy: tax relief, simplification of regulation and / or extension of social protection? Which devices with respect to efficiency, fairness and costs? Should there be positive discrimination towards women?

A first study (the 1st chapter of Justine Bondoux's thesis) focuses on the impact of the onset of disability on personal income among European older workers. As personal income is defined as the sum of activity income (salaries) and compensation income (retirement, disability, unemployment, etc.), the paper will, in the long term, allow the impact of disability on the different fields of this personal income to be broken down. The main hypothesis of this work is twofold: on the one hand, the onset of disability leads to a drop in productivity on the labour market and therefore a drop in wages, and on the other hand, it allows access to compensation systems and therefore leads to an increase in income. Once the income is broken down, we will then be in a position to conclude as to the effectiveness of the compensation systems in making up for income losses linked to an adverse health event.

A second study looks at the evaluation of the 2005 French law on the employment rate of people with disabilities. This law is an extension of the 1987 law, which introduced coercive measures to encourage companies to hire disabled individuals. Indeed, it became mandatory for any private company with over 20 employees to hire a (fixed) quota of disabled people, under penalty of having to pay a fine if the quota were not met. Barnay and his co-authors showed in a previous study that firms prefer to pay the fine rather than respect the quota (Barnay et al., 2019). Thus, the 2005 law supplements the 1987 law by extending the quotas to the public sector and by increasing the financial penalties for non-compliance. The aim of this contribution is then to see whether or not the strengthening of the 1987 law has led to an increase in the employment rate of disabled individuals.

Finally, the third ongoing study looks at the impact of adverse working conditions on the reporting of disabilities in France. Tracing the entire career of individuals will allow us to measure the different exposures they are confronted with and thus estimate their effect on health and more particularly on the occurrence of disability. In order to have a more detailed analysis, this paper will focus on the different levels of exposure to adverse working conditions. The main aim will then be to estimate the impact of these different levels of exposure on the occurrence of disability.

BeBlood Project

Thomas Barnay

Researchers: Thomas Barnay (ERUDITE), Sophie Rieunier (IRG), Christine Pagnac (EFS), Hélène Rouard (EFS), Victor Issaad (UPEC Master 2 Health Economics student) hosted at ERUDITE (UPEC) for a 6-month internship (1st April - 30th September 2021) under the supervision of Thomas Barnay

Funding: COMUE Paris-Est

Periode : 2021-2022

[Translate to English:]

The innovative project "BEcome BLOOd Donor/Devenir Donneur de sang" has been selected in the framework of the "Amorçage" call for projects of the Comue Paris-Est. It aims to prepare the elaboration of a new communication strategy by studying different aspects of blood donation in Île-de-France. This multidisciplinary project (ERUDITE, IRG and Établissement français du sang) aims to understand the specificities of the donor population with regard to the population eligible for donation in Île-de-France by crossing quantitative and qualitative approaches.

 

The following four objectives are pursued:

1) To understand the specificities of the donor population in relation to the population eligible for donation in Ile-de-France

2) To analyse the reasons behind the choice to donate blood or not by disentangling individual effects (age, sex, health status, social class, presence of children, etc.) from contextual effects (access to information, availability of donation centres, availability of donors in relation to their professional status and their working hours or their household chores)

3) To evaluate the intrinsic motivations of donors (altruism, notion of solidarity, risk aversion, degree of information on the use of blood, etc.)

4) In time, to evaluate EFS policies or strategies by mobilising public policy evaluation analyses based on econometric techniques of panel data (semi-experimental methods) and target strategies adapted to mobilise donors of specific erythrocytic phenotypes of certain populations.

Childhood influences on later-life health resilience after an economic crisis: USA/Europe comparative approach (EUR-LIVE)

Thomas Barnay

Researchers: Thomas Martinez (UPEC Master 2 Health Economics student) obtained a research grant for a Master 2 degree within the framework of the University Research School - LIVE of UPEC.
He is hosted at ERUDITE (UPEC) for a 6 months internship (1st April - 30th September 2021) under the supervision of Thomas Barnay.

Funding: EUR-LIVE (UPEC)

Periode: 2021

A first approach of vulnerability may rely on resilience, defined as the dynamic process by which individuals “cope, adapt and transform in the face of diverse stresses and shocks” (Pelletier et al. 2016). These coping, adaptative and transformative capacities can reduce the likelihood and severity of adverse events occurring in the face of a shock but also the vulnerability of individuals to subsequent shocks. However, these capacities evolve over time, being the result of a complex and changing combination of biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors. Among these factors, childhood experiences and living conditions may have a strong influence, as they are known to affect later-life health (Pakpahan et al. 2017). Moreover, the effects of individual and global economic shocks on the health and resilience of people aged 50 and over remain unclear and little studied. Thus, this work proposes a longitudinal study of childhood influences on the health resilience of individuals over 50 years old after the 2009 economic crisis. As this resilience is likely to vary due to contextual and cultural differences, this work proposes to compare the effects observed between Europe and the United States. To do so, this work will tap in the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) and HRS (Health and Retirement Study) data, two harmonized longitudinal household surveys designed to collect data on the health, socioeconomic status and retrospective life histories of adults aged 50 and over respectively from Europe and the United States. A follow-up analysis will be performed from 2004 to 2017 using a difference-in-difference approach (to control individual and time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity) based on childhood experiences variation combined with matching procedures built on pre-crisis variables (to control observed heterogeneity, selection effect and reverse causality). Regarding the concept of resilience, the outcome variable would first refer to the absence of deterioration in health status after the 2009 economic crisis.

 

I don’t expect much

Thomas Barré, Patrick Domingues


Funding: BQR UPEC and ERUDITE Laboratory

Periode: 2021

Summary:
“This paper revisits the building blocks of the most influential theories of decision under risk, and highlights the fact that the expectation criterion (together with some form of utility of money) weighs heavily on the way we study risk preferences. We propose an alternative criterion for comparing lotteries that accounts for the entire distribution function of lottery payoffs, as suggested by Allais (1953), giving birth to a cross-rank dependent theory of decision under risk. Our model introduces the concepts of Dissimilarity and Desirability over which risk preferences are defined. Our theory is tested on experimental data collected by Baillon et al. (2020) using non-parametric techniques”.

Accidents du travail et consommation de benzodiazépines - Dispositif CIFRE (Occupational accidents and benzodiazepine use - CIFRE scheme)

François-Olivier Baudot – PhD student

Thesis supervisor: Thomas Barnay
Company tutor: Pascal Jacquetin

Funding:Caisse Nationale d’Assurance Maladie

Period: April 2018 - April 2021

The aim of this thesis is to study the links between work accidents (AT – Accidents du Travail) and the consumption of benzodiazepines, which are psychotropic drugs frequently used to treat anxiety and insomnia. It is based on the use of data from the national health data system (SNDS – Système National des Données de Santé). It is divided into three parts. The first part focuses on the consequences of the occurrence of a WA on the consumption and overconsumption of benzodiazepines. Using a selection model, we show that although the AT may constitute a shock that leads to an increase in benzodiazepine consumption, this consumption is not followed by an increase in the overconsumption of these drugs. The second part of the paper, mirroring the first, focuses on the risk of ATs following benzodiazepine use. In particular, we show that there is an increased risk of AT after stopping treatment. The third part concerns the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic on the dynamics of benzodiazepine consumption, particularly from a territorial point of view.

 

Valorisations
First chapter
Barnay, T., Baudot, F.-O. (2020). Work accident effect on the risk of benzodiazepine use and overuse. ERUDITE Working Paper.

Presentations
TEPP 2018, JMA 2019, EuHEA PhD Student-Supervisor 2019, JESF 2019

Context
Today, the institutional recognition of the role of caregivers favours the development and consolidation of a genuine policy of support for family caregivers, in particular with the deployment of the first national plan for support to caregivers in France, one of whose priorities is the reconciliation of personal and professional life. Nevertheless, among caregivers, situations are heterogeneous. Two singularities are highlighted here: the first relates to the help provided by parent caregivers. The second relates to parent caregivers of children with a rare disease (MR - Maladie Rare) and an intellectual disability (DI - Déficience Intellectuelle), including those with a rare disability (HR - Handicap Rare). This is in line with one of the axes (axis 8) of the PNMR 3 entitled "facilitating the inclusion of people with rare diseases and their caregivers", one of the objectives of which is to "facilitate access to support systems, rights and benefits for people with disabilities and their caregivers". This also converges with one of the commitments of the future 3rd National Plan for Rare Disabilities (3ème Schéma National Handicaps Rares), which could be: "to recognise the expectations of people with rare disabilities and their relatives and to support their caregivers".

 

Objectives

Our project aims to identify, describe and analyse the situations in which parent caregivers help children with rare diseases and with an intellectual disability (some of whom have a rare disability) and the repercussions of this help on the employment situation and professional life of the caregivers. In addition, we will investigate the phenomenon of ‘rareness’ and/or its impacts. Rare diseases and rare disabilities are often associated with the rareness of expertise and responses (particularly medical and medico-social), the rareness of mobilisable help (particularly due to the complexity of the disability), and the uncertainty and delay in diagnosis, all of which are likely to influence the employment situation of the parent caregiver. This more often results in a breakdown in institutional care, which has an immediate impact on the situation.

The project is structured in two parts. The first aims to identify, describe and analyse the situations of help provided by parent caregivers to children with rare diseases with intellectual disabilities. The second aims to better understand the repercussions of this help on the employment situation and professional life of caregivers.

Methods:
The project adopts a multidisciplinary approach. To investigate each of the axes, we will mobilise the theoretical and empirical frameworks specific to economics – particularly the fields of family economics, labour economics and health economics – and to sociology in order to gain a comprehensive perspective.

The project, which will run for 30 months, will exploit three types of material over six phases.

  • The constitution and exploitation of a corpus of written documents (books ranging from testimonies to novels, articles in magazines or scientific works, blogs and forums of associations).
  • Qualitative data collected through both exploratory interviews, prior to the completion of the questionnaire, and in-depth interviews after the quantitative analysis.
  • Quantitative data (from an ad hoc database), collected on the basis of an online self-administered questionnaire.

The documentary corpus and its analysis will serve both the economic and the sociological analysis. The quantitative data will be mainly used for economic analysis. However, they will also be used for sociological analysis. In the same way, qualitative data will be mainly used for sociological analysis, but will also feed the construction of the questionnaire and the economic analyses. The linking of all this ‘material’ will be essential in order to carry out analyses enriched by the contributions of the two disciplines, within the framework of a complementary reflection. The study plan we propose is based on this complementarity.

Perspectives
In connection with the public policies mentioned in the context
, the results of the project will make it possible to better identify, describe and understand: the configurations of help deployed around children with rare diseases with intellectual disabilities (some of whom are carriers of rare handicaps) and the impact of the associated rarities; the construction and development of the knowledge and skills of parents who become caregivers; the repercussions of these configurations on the employment situations of the parent caregivers. In particular, the results will make it possible to highlight the levers and obstacles to the recognition of the role of parent caregivers and to the reconciliation of work and caregiving. Furthermore, although our study concerns a unique population, there are points in common with other fragile populations. The results could therefore shed light on other caregiving situations and provide food for thought regarding common questions.

CAGE (Collective Agreement for Gender Equality)

Julien Cardoso - PhD Student

Thesis supervisor: Pascale PETIT; Nathalie GREENAN

Researchers: Nathalie GREENAN (projet coordinator, CEET/CNAM,TEPP); Anne-Sophie BRUNO (Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne, CHS); Ylénia CURCI (RECITS – FEMTO, UTBM, Belfort) ; Jeremy Tanguy (IREGE, Savoie Mont Blanc University)

Funding: ANR

Period: beginning of 2018 to December 2021

Valorisations
Submission to JMA (Journées de la Microéconomie Appliquée) 2021 in Annecy (selected)
Submission to: AFSE, IAAE, EALE, SIOE, CREM and to LEDi (no answer yet)

The CAGE project aims to analyse collective bargaining in France concerning professional equality as exhaustively as possible. Now that collective bargaining has become a real lever to fight against gender inequalities in the labour market, the project has a real desire to provide elements for discussions on public policies regarding collective bargaining. The first stage of the project will consist of a qualitative analysis of negotiation activity in France (in particular through interviews with HR departments). Then, a quantitative analysis of collective bargaining will take place by the study of a database of negotiated texts associated with information from the REPONSE 2017 survey of establishments negotiating on professional equality. This stage also aims to try to quantify the ‘quality’ of the negotiated texts through a search of texts. Finally, the effect of collective bargaining on gender pay differences will be evaluated.

 

Recherche interdisciplinaire « INTENS – Fonctions d’interface énergétique dans les villes des Nords et des Suds : objets, systèmes, acteurs, métiers »

"INTENS - Energy interface functions in cities of the North and South: objects, systems, actors, professions" Interdisciplinary research
 
Sandrine Kablan, Camille Régnier and Florent Sari

Researchers: Sylvy Jaglin (LATTS)  and Margot Pereglino (Lab’Urba); Caroline Gallez (City, Mobility & transport Laboratory); Denis Morand (Lab’Urba); Mahamadou Abdou (CERPES); Jonathan Rutherford (LATTS), Marika Rupeka (Lab’Urba); Poupeau François-Mathieu (LATTS); Patinaux Leny (LATTS);  Souami Taoufik (LATTS);  Gressel Reinhard (SPLOTT); Gallez Caroline (LVMT); Morand Denis (Lab’URBA); Laffréchine Katia (Lab’URBA); Abdou Tankari Mahamadou (CERTES); Lefebvre Gilles (CERTES); Nefzaoui Elyes (ESYCOM)

Funding: Excellence & Interdisiplinary Research Program» of I-SITE FUTURE

Project presentation
The liberalisation of energy markets, the transition to renewable sources and the digital revolution are challenging the centralised network model, leading to the transformation of markets, the emergence of new socio-technical interface devices (e.g. advanced metering) and intermediation professions (e.g. aggregators). These transformations are accompanied by a reconfiguration of the systems of actors and governance. By focusing on energy in the building sector of cities in the North and South through a combination of social and human sciences and urban engineering approaches, the objective of the interdisciplinary INTENS project is to understand how energy interface functions (FIE - Fonctions d’Interface Énergétique) and urban territories co-evolve, and how these transformations contribute to the shaping of multiple energy transition paths.

 

Expected results
The products or deliverables of this research should testify to the capacity of the INTENS project to meet the demand for international visibility and interdisciplinarity. Several possibilities have been discussed: producing a collective book (e.g. published by Labex Urban Futures), or a special issue of a journal (e.g. Energy Policy); creating a summer doctoral course (e.g. ERASMUS Plus), or a master's degree in energy (e.g. "Energy and Society" at the University of Durham, or a master’s degree in "Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Energy of Tomorrow" at the University of Paris-Diderot; submit an application to a European call for proposals of the H2020 type (with European partners); creating a European doctoral course, which could be in continuity with the cycle of doctoral seminars that the "City and Energy" GT had already carried out in 2019 (3 thematic sessions, 6 working papers in the process of being published, as well as dissertation summaries).

Recherche interdisciplinaire « INTENS – Fonctions d’interface énergétique dans les villes des Nords et des Suds : objets, systèmes, acteurs, métiers » (Health care consumption and territory: an application on medico-administrative data)

Anne-Marie Konopka – PhD Student

Thesis supervisor: Thomas Barnay
Company tutor: Christine Sevilla-Dedieu

Funding: MGEN Public Health Foundation

Period: from 01/02/2019 to 31/01/2022

The existence of health inequalities is based on differences in health status and health care consumption between individuals. The principle of horizontal equity recognises equal treatment for equal need of care. If this is not the case, it is necessary to examine the factors that explain these differences. In particular, territorial inequalities may result from differences in health status, social categories, preferences and risk behaviour. They can also be explained by an unequal distribution of healthcare provision. In the latter case, the question of the efficiency of the allocation of health resources arises. The aim of this thesis is therefore to analyse the factors behind the territorial disparities in the use of healthcare and preventive measures observed in a specific population (MGEN policyholders). It will involve mobilising medico-administrative data that will make it possible to monitor the consumption of care by insured persons over several years. These data will make it possible to determine the role of individual factors (age, marital status, monthly income, CMU-C, ALD, level of coverage) and contextual factors (socio-economic level of residence, supply of healthcare) when using a screening procedure and consulting a specialist using multilevel models. Spatial econometrics will be used to study the geographical relationships that may exist between areas of residence. Finally, it will be possible to evaluate the impact of the implementation of organised cervical cancer screening on the inequalities observed.

 

Valorisations
Articles
Konopka AM, Barnay T, Billaudeau N, Sevilla-Dedieu C (2019). Les déterminants du recours au
dépistage du cancer du col de l’utérus : une analyse départementale. Economie & Prévision, La
Documentation Française ; 0(216) : 43-63.

Oral Communications
Konopka AM, Barnay T, Sevilla-Dedieu C (2020). Substitution of ambulatory care by emergency
care in Health Professional Shortage Areas in France. European Health Economics Association
(EuHEA) 2020 conference, Virtual 9 juillet.

Konopka AM, Barnay T, Billaudeau N, Sevilla-Dedieu C (2019). Spatial determinants of cervical cancer
screening in France. 6th European Health Economics Association (EuHEA) PhD Student-Supervisor
and Early Career Researcher Conference. Porto, Portugal, 4-6 septembre.

Konopka AM, Barnay T, Billaudeau N, Sevilla-Dedieu C (2019). Geographical determinants of cervical
cancer screening in France. The Health Economists’ Study Group (HESG) Summer 2019 meeting,
University of East Anglia. Norwich, Angleterre, 3-5 juillet.

Konopka AM, Billaudeau N, Barnay T, Sevilla-Dedieu C (2018). Comment expliquer les inégalités
territoriales de recours au cancer du col de l’utérus ? 40èmes Journées des Économistes de la Santé
Français (JESF). Paris, France, 6-7 décembre.

Konopka AM, Billaudeau N, Barnay T, Sevilla-Dedieu C (2018). Comment réduire les inégalités
territoriales de recours au cancer du col de l’utérus ? 15ème Conférence annuelle Travail, Emploi et
Politiques Publiques -TEPP- « Évaluation des Politiques Publiques ». Créteil, France, 26-27 novembre.

Other articles
Konopka AM, Sevilla-Dedieu C, Barnay T (2020). Comment mieux dépister le cancer du col de l’utérus? The Conversation, 11 juin. https://theconversation.com/comment-mieux-depister-le-cancer-du-colde-luterus-139005

"Faire circuler les morts" – Étude des Rituels et de l'Économie Funéraires Postsocialistes en contexte Migratoire ("Moving the Deceased About" - A Study of Postsocialist Funeral Rituals and Economics in a Migratory Context)

Marine de Talancé

Researchers from other institutions involved in the project: Juliette Cleuziou (lecturer at the Université Lumière-Lyon 2, affiliated to the LADEC), Lucia Direnberger (research fellow at the CNRS), Sandra Pellet (post-doctoral researcher at the INED), Ariane Zevaco (associate researcher at the CETOBaC and the CREM-LESC) and Christilla Marteau d'Autry
Project website: https://refpom.hypotheses.org/

 

Funding: ANR

Period: 2018-2021

In post-socialist Central Asia, international mobilities directed mainly towards Russia have intensified considerably since the collapse of the Soviet bloc in 1991. These migratory circulations sometimes come with the death of migrants. The REFPoM project is interested in the questions raised by the death of migrants in Russia and Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Mongolia). It proposes to explore a region little researched by French anthropology and to analyse a phenomenon never before studied in the region, the "deceased at a distance", through an interdisciplinary approach that combines quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The new territorialities of the deceased during migration testify to unprecedented circulation in the region in terms of their intensity and form, in a postcolonial context marked by inequalities between Russians and Central Asians. Moreover, they incite societies to innovate and to think of new ritual and economic practices to face them. This project aims to analyse them along two lines of study.

 

(a) Reterritorializing the dead. Symbolic, ritual and economic imperatives

The purpose of this research is to analyse the social, symbolic, ritual and economic modalities of the reterritorialisation of those deceased in mobility which, in the majority of cases, include the repatriation of their bodies. The aim will be to grasp what funerary ideology, transnational social and ritual practices and family relations underpin these mobilities. Deaths raise questions about the choice of burial place, the modalities of ritual performance and the financial costs that these deaths represent, for which the diversity of the populations (Tajik, Uzbek, Mongolian, etc.) and religions (Islam, Buddhism, etc.) that will be studied by the project's participants must be taken into account. Both in Central Asia and in Russia, institutional, political and economic constraints contribute to the creation by migrants and their families of social, ritual and economic adjustment practices. The analysis of the deaths of Central Asian migrants in Russia will thus allow us to grasp the issues raised by the social, symbolic, ritual and economic practices of reterritorialisation to which they give rise. It will thus contribute to research on deterritorialised dead people (Delaplace 2009).

(b) Funerary rituals, memory construction and political resistance

This line of research takes an interest in memory construction and the political dimension of these transnational ritual practices. One of the original features of the REFPoM project lies in its political approach of the phenomenon: the idea is to approach the ritual as the site of micro-politics, which makes it possible to grasp, beyond the symbolic and familial transformations, the way in which migrations and current political processes affect the relations of populations to their institutions. Here, the notions of 'tactics' (Certeau & Giard 2010) and 'infra-politics' (Scott 2006) will serve as a theoretical starting point for analysing the relationships between social groups (migrants, their families, etc.) and the institutions that govern them. By understanding transnational rituals as a more or less visible or conscious ‘arena of contestation’ (Gardner & Grillo 2002), this project will make visible political relations between communities and the state, relations that are not embodied in institutions but rather in practices - in this case funerary - that are most often aimed at circumventing them. The research team will analyse the role and dynamics of the funeral economy in the broadest sense in order to grasp the practices of mutual aid in migration, the management of death in a context of mobility and, more broadly, the dynamics underlying the relationship between society and politics in a post-socialist context.

CERTEAU Michel de & GIARD Luce, 2010, Arts de faire, Nouvelle éd., Paris, Gallimard (coll. « L’invention du quotidien »), 349 p.
DELAPLACE Grégory, 2009, L’invention des morts, Sépultures, fantômes et photographies en Mongolie contemporaine., Paris, Centre d’Études Mongoles et Sibériennes (EPHE) (coll. « Nord-Asie »), vol.1, 322 p.
GARDNER Katy, 2002, « Death of a migrant: transnational death rituals and gender among British Sylhetis », Global Networks, 1 juillet 2002, vol. 2, no 3, p. 191‑204.
SCOTT James C., 2006, « Infra-politique des groupes subalternes », Vacarme, 1990 2006, no 36, p. 25‑29.

GAP

M-A Granié

Researchers: D. Anne, S. Chareyron, M-A Granié, Y. L'Horty

Funding: I-SITE Future

Period: 2018-2021

Summary:
Gender and gaining access to a driving licence

Diagnostic sur les limites de la méthode envisagée pour mesurer le non-recours aux prestations sociales (Diagnosis of the limits of the method envisaged to measure the non-use of social benefits)

François Legendre

Researchers: Cyrine Hannafi, post-doc, Rémi Le Gall, post-doc, François Legendre

Funding: DREES (Direction de la Recherche des Études de l'Évaluation et des Statistiques - Department of Research, Studies, Evaluation and Statistics)

Period: 2019-2022

Summary:
As part of the national strategy to prevent and combat poverty, the DREES is working to develop indicators for the annual monitoring of the non-use of social benefits. In this context, the project is to assess a method of measuring this phenomenon based on the INSEE's tax and social income survey (ERFS - Enquête Revenus Fiscaux et Sociaux) and on the Ines microsimulation model co-managed by the INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques), the DREES and the CNAF, the national family benefits fund (Caisse Nationale des Allocations Familiales). The work envisaged will focus on the active solidarity income (RSA - Revenu de Solidarité Active) and the activity allowance (PA - Prime d’Activité). The aim is to assess the data sources and the eligibility simulation programmes, and to carry out a statistical analysis of what determines the non-use of these benefits.

EQUINOX

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: D. Anne, M. Leborgne, Y. L'Horty

Funding: Cour des Comptes

Period: 2020-2021

Summary:
The aim of the project is to evaluate the redistributive effects of related rights and local social assistance.

DREAM

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: D. Anne, L. Challe, S. Chareyron, Y. L'Horty, L. du Parquet, P. Petit

Funding: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (CGET)

Period: 2018-2020

Summary:
The project aims to measure discrimination in large companies.

EXERCICE

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: F. Gilles, Y. L'Horty, F. Mihoubi

Funding: France Stratégie

Period: 2016-2021

Summary:
The aim of the project is to carry out an ex post evaluation of the CICE and of the responsibility pact.

MELODI

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: S. Chareyron, M. Leborgne, Y. L'Horty, P. Petit

Funding: Communauté d'Agglomération Maubeuge Val de Sambre

Period: 2020

Summary:
The aim of the project is to measure discrimination at a local level.

IODAS

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: L. Challe, F. Gilles, Y. L'Horty, F. Mihoubi

Funding: France Stratégie

Period: 2019-2021

Summary:
The aim of the project is to assess the effects of the gender and age structure of companies on their productivity.

TIGRE

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: E. Duguet, Y. L'Horty, F. Sari

Funding: Pôle Emploi

Period: 2019-2021

Summary:
The aim of the project is to evaluate the effects of the Great Recession on territorial disparities regarding the exit of unemployment.

DESPERADO 3

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: Y. L'Horty, N. Mahmoudi, P. Petit, F-C Wolff

Funding: Ministère de l'Économie et des finances (DGAFP)

Period: 2019-2020

Summary:
The aim of the project to measure discrimination on the basis of disability.

PIC GRAND-EST

Yannick L'Horty

Researcheres: C. Garrouste, F. Gilles, Y. L'Horty, P. Petit, F-C Wolff

Funding: DARES

Period: 2020-2022

Summary:
The aim of the project is to evaluate the Skills Investment Plan of the Grand-Est Region.

LAMINAIRE (HAPDOM 4)

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: D. Anne, N. Greenan, Y. L'Horty, P. Petit, S. Chareyron

Funding: FEJ

Period: 2019-2023

Summary:
The aim of the project is to evaluate a learning support programme.

DARDEVIL

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: L. Challe, S. Chareyron, Y. L'Horty, L-P Mbaye, L. du Parquet, P. Petit

Funding: UNADEV

Period: 2020

Summary:
The aim of the project is to study disability discrimination in the labour and housing markets.

RED

Yannick L'Horty

Researchers: L. Challe, Y. L'Horty, P. Petit, F-C Wolff

Funding: ANR et DARES

Period: 2020

Summary:
The aim of the project is to study the relation between employment discrimination and recession.

PIC BOURGOGNE FRANCHE-COMTE

Pascale Petit

Researchers: T. Barré, L. Challe, Y. L'Horty, L. du Parquet, P. Petit

Funding: DARES

Period: 2020-2022

Summary:
The aim of the project is to carry out an evaluation of the skills investment plan of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Region.

DIADEME 1

Pascale Petit

Researchers: L. Challe, Y. L'Horty, L. du Parquet, P. Petit

Funding: FEJ

Period: 2019-2022

Summary:
The aim of the project is to evaluate the discrimination prevention actions carried out by ARML PACA.

DIADEME 3

Pascale Petit

Researchers: L. Challe, Y. L'Horty, L. du Parquet, P. Petit

Funding: FEJ

Period: 2019-2021

Summary:
The aim of the project is to evaluate the discrimination prevention actions carried out by the ML of Chambéry.

L’émigration des Européens hautement qualifiés vers les Etats-Unis (The Emigration of highly skilled Europeans to the United States)

Dominique Redor - Researcher affiliated with ERUDITE and CEET (CNAM)

Project conducted at the Centre for Employment and Labour Studies (CNAM)

Researchers
: Richard Duhautois (CEET, CNAM), in cooperation with the "Migrations" Department of the OECD (J.P DUMONT)

No specific funding, use of logistics (IT resources, bibliographic database, CEET and CANAM software)

Period: 2020-2022

The international mobility of highly skilled workers has become an essential element of globalisation. Since the end of the 20th century, developed countries have been engaged in a fierce competition to "attract the best talent".  The United States is the most advanced country in this competition, and Europeans occupy an important place among the ‘brains’ who come to work there.

We show that Europeans working in the United States, especially the British and the French, are at the top of the hierarchy of American companies, laboratories and universities. The very high salaries, and the highly rigorous selection of these European immigrants through the work visa system, combine to attract these highly skilled workers and thus provide the American economy with the specialists and experts it needs. The concentration of British and French immigrants in the high-tech sectors reveals the difficulties of their countries of origin in providing them with job opportunities commensurate with their qualifications.

This research uses the ACS (American Community Survey) database. This database is an annual survey of the 1% of the population residing in the United States. It allows for the extraction of a sufficient number of French, German, Italian and British citizens to conduct a detailed statistical and econometric analysis of their place in the American labour market.

Valorisation: This research resulted in a first publication for the general public in March 2021: "Les États-Unis, une économie numérique attractive pour les Européens les plus qualifiés?" - "The United States, an attractive digital economy for the most qualified Europeans?" (https://ceet.cnam.fr/publications) and will be followed by several publications in academic journals.

DYNAMIQUE DE L’IMMOBILIER COMMERCIAL

Camille Régnier

Researchers: Kévin Beaubrun Diant (ReFinE Scientific Director) University of Paris-Dauphine, Mathieu Sanch-Maritan, University of Rouen-Normandy, Florent Sari (ERUDITE, Professor at UPEC)

Funding: Louis Bachelier Institute through the ReFinE research network

Period: 2019-2021

"In March 2018, the Ministry of Territorial Cohesion announced the launch of a national "Action cœur de ville" (‘Heart of the city action’) plan aimed at revitalising the city centres of medium-sized towns. This plan illustrates one of the key facts of the spatial organisation of cities since the 20th century: the phenomenon of decentralisation. In many developed countries, jobs, households and shops are moving from the city centre to the periphery (Duranton & Puga, 2015).

With regard to shops in particular, Procos, the specialised trade federation, highlights the desertification of town centres observed at a national level: according to Procos, commercial vacancy has now reached 7.1% of the commercial buildings in town centres compared with 6.3% in 2001. On the other hand, shopping centres are doing better, with less empty space (4.9% now).

Studying this change is important not only because of its quantitative importance, but also because in the French case this "decentralisation" of economic activity seems to be particularly significant for small towns. In fact, according to the Procos study cited above, only the very major cities (Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Lille, Bordeaux, etc.) have seen their commercial vacancy fall over the last ten years (6% compared with 7.7%). In the economic literature, the phenomenon of decentralisation has been approached in different ways.

Firstly, from a theoretical point of view, two approaches have been used to study the determinants of land use in an urban context. The first one considers a monocentric city and develops a comparative statics analysis to evaluate the effect of a change of some parameters on the structure of the city. The Alonso-Mills-Muth model shows that the size of the city is sensitive to the cost of transport: a decrease in the cost of transport leads to a spread of the city. The second approach considers the possibility of a polycentric city where the location of firms and households is not known a priori but results from trade-offs generated by agglomeration economies or diseconomies. However, these canonical theoretical models do not explicitly consider the presence of shops, which are both a source of amenities and jobs. Yet the dynamics of the location of shops can play an important role in determining spatial equilibria. Indeed, Couture et al (2018) show that in the 100 largest American cities, commuting to work represented less than a quarter of trips made by private vehicles in 2008, i.e. as much as trips to shops. In this respect, the location of shops seems to play a decisive role in spatial equilibria, a role which has only been partially analysed up to now by the theoretical literature in urban economics (Takahashi, 2014). Taking into account agglomeration economies modifies the trade-offs that determine land use. The study of agglomeration economies in an urban economy model is particularly important in view of the growing number of empirical studies illustrating the importance and magnitude of agglomeration economies (Duranton and Puga 2015). Although these agglomeration economies have been modelled in the context of work in geographical economics (Behrens & Robert-Nicoud, 2015; Combes & Gobillon, 2015), work in an urban setting and explicitly integrating the floor space of commercial activities is rare.

This project therefore aims initially to fill this gap, and in particular to study the mutations in land use between commercial and residential real estate, and to explain the multiplication of the existence of secondary centres.

The objective of this project is also to shed empirical light on the phenomenon of decentralisation in France, with a particular focus on the commercial aspect of secondary centres, in order to understand the determinants of the existence of these centres and their possible specificities, particularly in terms of interactions with residential property.

Démographie des entreprises : performances et sélection du marché (Business demographics: performance and market selection)

Juliette Rey

Researchers: ABIDI Zineb, CONSTANT Karine, FARES Redha, GUILLIN Amélie, MATHIEU Claude, REY Juliette, VIALFONT Arnold
Short summary of the project: (https://www.casd.eu/project/demographie-des-entreprises-performances-et-selection-du-marche/)

As part of the climate and energy package put in place by the European Council in 2007, the European Commission has made changes to the regulations on state aid for the environment and energy in order to achieve the objectives set for 2020. In 2012, the European Commission adopted new guidelines allowing states to grant aid to energy-intensive sectors. The authorisations for these forms of aid have been reaffirmed in the new guidelines on the environment and energy of 2014. In this context, a state aid scheme to reduce the rate of domestic tax on final consumption of electricity was authorised in France in 2016 by the European Commission. The rate reductions apply to firms in the guided passenger or freight transport sector as well as to firms with electro-intensive or hyper-electro-intensive industrial installations.

The analysis in this paper will focus on the effectiveness of domestic tax reductions on final electricity consumption. The stated objective of these aids is to preserve the competitiveness of firms experiencing a sharp rise in their costs (notably linked to the increase in the tax rate on 1st January 2016 in France) and to discourage them from relocating their activity to regions of the world where environmental regulations are more flexible. We would therefore like to study their impact on the competitiveness of firms and on the production sites. We would also like to complete the study by looking at potential protectionist effects through an analysis of the beneficiaries' sales and exports.

Two methods are envisaged to carry out this study. First, we would like to implement regressions with instrumental variables in order to analyse the impact of aid on beneficiaries while dealing with the potential endogeneity linked to the fact that firms' sales/exports/market share may influence in turn the Commission's choice to grant state aid or not. We would also like to set up discontinuity regressions. Indeed, the definitions of electro-intensive and hyper-electro-intensive industrial installations are based on thresholds concerning the share of value added devoted to the payment of the domestic tax on the final consumption of electricity (TICFE - Taxe Intérieure sur la Consommation Finale d'Électricité) and the electricity consumption of the installation. It is therefore possible to study the differences in performance, sales and competitiveness between beneficiaries and firms that do not receive them but that are very close to the thresholds for receiving them.

Raréfaction de l’Offre de Soins et Adaptations des Médecins généralistes (The Growing Shortage of Health Care Supply and Adaptations Made by General Practitioners)

Yann Videau

Collaborators: B. Ventelou and colleagues (AMSE), J. Mousquès and colleagues (IRDES), P. Verger (ORS PACA) in response to the call for research projects from the Institut de Recherche en Santé Publique (IReSP)

Period: 2019-2022

Context
According to recent projections, the supply of private healthcare could decrease by 30% until 2027, thus extending the pockets of medical under-density to large portions of the French territory. The project focuses on the various forms of adaptation that General Practitioners implement when they are faced with the scarcity of their colleagues in their territory.

Objectives
One of the central questions will be to estimate the risks of 'maladaptation', for which the adjustment trajectory chosen by the doctor proves to be socially sub-optimal, for himself, for his patients, and for the population of his practice area. Another important question addressed by the research will be to study a particular form of adaptation promoted by the public authorities: that of grouping health professionals together in health centres, especially multi-professionals ones.

Methods
We will use a database consisting of repeated surveys of a representative sample of a panel of General Practitioners (a collection of opinions, attitudes and feelings at work); we will add data matched to these doctors, particularly 'ecological' data (identified on their geographical location), but also on their care/prescription practices (matching SNDS - SNIIRAM).
We will first propose studies of the cases of medical under-density already observed, focusing on their possible association with the way doctors behave regarding the work supply (including their 'upstream' choice of who and where to set up a practice), with strategies of practice reorganisation, or with specific medical practices impacting on the quality of care offered to patients (going beyond the ROSP indicators).
We will then look at the support systems generally put in place by the public authorities. The aim of this part will be to propose elements for assessing adaptation strategies, such as grouping healthcare professionals in multi-professional healthcare centres (MSPsMaisons de Santé Pluriprofessionnelles).
We usually use econometric analyses (with a quasi-experimental design which will take into account the problems of self-selection within the programmes): nested choice models, duration models. However, a qualitative approach will also be proposed. Conducted by the ORS PACA with GPs practising in so-called under-dense areas, in MSPs or not, it will enable objective indicators to be compared with the GPs' perceptions.

Perspectives
The proposed approach should first of all contribute to renewing methods and knowledge in the fields of healthcare supply economics and public health, notably because it introduces dynamic and qualitative aspects (the creation of longitudinal monitoring indicators of the scarcity of doctors in the territories and the resulting adaptations among doctors: the issue of maintaining the status quo, rather than encouraging new health practitioners to move in, the effect on (the evolution of) the quality of practices, etc.). Optimising the process of adapting to the scarcity of medical resources is already on the public policy agenda; our approach should therefore be directly useful for decision-makers (national and regional). In this respect, partnerships have already been set up in PACA with the ARS and the URPS, with the intention that our research work interact with territorial public decision-making.