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ERUDITE Seminars

2021 Seminars

Thursday 20th May 2021 - 12.30pm to 2pm online on Zoom
Florent Sari (UPEC) – « The spatial determinants of unemployment differences in France: Before and after the great recession », co-authored by Emmanuel Duguet and Yannick L'Horty


The great recession of 2008-2009 led to a long deterioration of the labour market in France and a continuous increase in the number of job seekers until the mid-2010s. Thereafter, the labour market gradually improved until the health crisis of 2020. In this work, we are interested in the determinants of return-to-work disparities in French employment areas in the period 2007-2016. We mobilise spatial Durbin model on panel data to take into account problems of spatial dependency for our dependent and independent variables. Dynamic spatial Durbin models are also mobilised to consider time effects. Our results highlight the role of demographic and employment characteristics of the area where unemployed are located. In addition, effects are somewhat different according to the period considered: unemployment-to-work transition rates do not have the same determinants during pre-crisis and post-crisis periods.

Thursday 29th April 2021 - 12.30pm to 2pm online on Zoom
Diane Aubert (UPEC) - "Border carbon adjustments in a context of outsourcing and unemployment", co-authored by Hamzeh Arabzadeh (University of Aachen).

This paper investigates the impact of a unilateral border carbon tax (BCT) on domestic unemployment, wage level, the switch to clean technologies, and global carbon emissions in advanced economies. As established by previous literature, firms react to a rise in domestic carbon tax (DCT) by switching to clean technologies and/or by outsourcing pollution-intensive parts of their production process to low-wage and low-carbon tax economies (a process broadly consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis). Both channels lead to a rise in wage inequality between low-and high-skilled workers and increase the unemployment rate of low-skilled workers. Besides, the impact of DCT on global carbon emissions is ambiguous and depends, among other factors, on the relative pollution-intensity of production in domestic vs in low-wage economies. We build a theoretical model in which the domestic market can produce by clean and/or dirty technologies. Firms that use dirty technology can produce at home or they can outsource pollution-intensive parts of their production process. We show that a unilateral BCT inverts the outsourcing trend, leading to higher wages and a lower unemployment rate of low-skilled workers. It also encourages the switch to clean technology in the domestic market. Besides, under plausible assumptions, BCT can reduce global carbon emissions.

8th April 2021
Jonathan Sicsic (University of Paris, LIRAES) - "Preferences for COVID-19 epidemic control measures among French adults. A discrete choice experiment", co-authored by Serge Blondel, François Langot and Judith Mueller.

"In this stated preferences study, we describe for the first time French citizens’ preferences for various epidemic control measures, with the aim to inform longer-term strategies (beyond winter 2020-21) and future epidemics. We used an original discrete choice experiment (DCE) in a representative sample of 908 French adults in November 2020 to quantify the trade-off adults were willing to make between restrictions on the social, cultural and economic life (economic and social losses), school closing (education losses), targeted lockdown of high-incidence areas (often socio-economically disadvantaged population – creating inequalities), constraints to directly protect vulnerable persons (increasing the risk of discrimination), and reduction in the risk of hospital overload (health gains). Our results show that there exist some trade-offs to avoid overload of hospitals and intensive care units. The willingness to trade-off was shared to a large extent across subgroups according to age, gender, education, vulnerability to the COVID-19 epidemic and other socio-demographic or –economic variables. However, it appears that individuals who feel at greater risk from COVID-19, and individuals with high confidence in the governmental management of the health and economic crisis, more easily accept all these measures. Our results allow us to simulate the welfare impacts of alternative policies (in terms of combination of epidemic control measures), by accounting for the heterogeneity in individuals' preferences."

1st April 2021
Kevin Fourrey (ERUDITE - CNAM, University of Paris-Est Créteil) - "A regression-based inequality measures decomposition".  Seminar on Zoom.

In this paper, I propose a breakdown of the inequality associated with the distribution of a dependent variable between the different explanatory variables of an econometric model. In particular, this breakdown allows us to study the intensity of distributional interactions between the variables in the creation of inequality. It respects a set of interesting properties and is applicable to a wide range of inequality measures. An application to the study of inequality in the French labour market is given.

18th March 2021
Chloé Leclere (ERUDITE, Univ. Gustave Eiffel) - "Sanitation and Household Investment. Evidence about improved latrine owernship in rural India" Seminar on Zoom.
Chloé started her thesis as a contractual PhD student at the ENS of Lyons, she joined us to complete it under the supervision of Catherine BROS-BOBIN.

This paper estimates a reduced-form model of household investment to identify the drivers of improved latrines ownership in rural India. Households with per capita consumption below the poverty line invest more in improved latrines, while households that can increase their future well-being by making productive investments are more likely to have no latrines or poor-quality facilities. These results are consistent with the fact that good quality sanitation is a consumptive investment, i.e. it rapidly increases the household's quality of life. Moreover the habit of dealing with water supply problems within the household significantly improves the likelihood of having an improved facility. This could be interpreted as the fact that preferences and norms are less taken into account when communities have to manage a social dilemma, whereas domestic management allows for greater flexibility.

25th February 2021
Noémie Mahmoudi (ERUDITE, Univ. Gustave Eiffel) - "Should a disability be declared? Evidence from a multi-criteria test in France" + Julien Cardoso (ERUDITE, UGE) - "Les politiques d'encadrement de la négociation collective sur l'égalité professionnelle ont-elles un impact sur leur résultat?"  ("Do policies framing collective bargaining on occupational equality have an impact on their outcome?"). Seminar on Zoom.

4th February 2021
Emmanuel Valat (ERUDITE, Univ. Gustave Eiffel) - " Les travailleurs d’origine étrangère ont-ils plus de chance d’être embauchés lorsque les employeurs recrutent par le biais de leurs réseaux de relations ? "  (“Are workers of foreign origin more likely to be hired when employers recruit through their networks?”).  Seminar on Zoom.

14th January 2021
Isabelle Rabaud (LEO, University of Orléans) - "Under attack: Terrorism and international trade in France, 2014-2016"Seminar on Zoom.

29th April 2021: Diane Aubert (ERUDITE, UPEC). Seminar on Zoom.

20th May 2021: Florent Sari (ERUDITE, UPEC). Seminar on Zoom.